Newsletter

NI: ORGANISED CRIME REPORT PUBLISHED

report on organised crime (.pdf, right-click for direct download) in Northern Ireland has been published by the House of Commons Northern Ireland Affairs Committee.
The report is the result of more than six months of meetings to take evidence from a wide range of sources. These include the police, Assets Recovery Agency and customs officials. The report will comment on the extent of organised crime and how effective measures taken by the police and government agencies to combat it are.

BBC NI’s Home Affairs Correspondent Vincent Kearney said most interest will focus on what is said about the IRA – if its members are still heavily involved in crime, and if so, if their involvement is authorised by the organisation’s leadership.
The British and Irish governments will hope the committee reaches the same conclusion as the last report by the IMC, that while IRA members are still involved, it is for personal gain and the organisation is moving away from crime.

Close attention will also be paid to what is said about loyalist paramilitaries. One of the committee members is the Ulster Unionist MP Lady Sylvia Hermon. Last month, she criticised the decision to allow David Ervine, the leader of the PUP, which is linked to the UVF, to join her party’s Stormont assembly group. A conclusion that the UVF is still actively involved in crime would cause more unease for Lady Hermon. (BBC News, Wednesday 5 July 2006)

Full text of the report (PDF).

EVOLUTION OF GANG CRIME

Driven by huge profits and a propensity for violence, organized crime groups and street gangs are flourishing across Canada with greater sophistication, stronger networks and deadly influence. From identity theft and hooker rings to hard-core drug operations, human trafficking and gun-smuggling, gangs are exploiting advanced technology and weapons to yield control over cash and turf. But Justice Minister Vic Toews said traditional lines drawn between various street gangs and organized crime are becoming blurred as distinct groups join hands to maximize the profits and influence of their criminal enterprises. It’s a disturbing trend that makes illicit webs increasingly tough for cops to crack.

“There are real concerns about the growth of violent crime that’s associated with street gangs and organized crime, but also a very clear connection now between more established organized crime families and street gangs,” said Toews in an interview. “We are committed to addressing this violence, and the first step is seen in our bills that ensure tougher sentencing, especially for gun crime.”

The Conservatives recently tabled a bill that will impose tougher mandatory minimum penalties for gang and gun crimes, but Toews said it’s just one means of tackling the problem. More specially trained police officers, enhanced intelligence capability and stronger laws to financially cripple organized crime are also required to get the upper hand over innovative gangsters, he said. “It used to be that many of these gangs stayed in their own expertise or specialty, but that seems to have shifted with these coordinated efforts between gangs,” Toews said. “That involves everything from drug trafficking to loan sharking to white collar fraud, especially credit card and bank card frauds, prostitution, trafficking in human beings, grow ops. The pattern is clear that there are connections now emerging between these various gangs.”

Toews said evidence shows that hand gun crime and gang-related homicides are increasing “quite dramatically” across the country. While addressing community and economic problems are key, he said the New York experience shows it’s best to tackle crime first. “You need to focus on getting the gunmen and the drug dealers off the street if you hope to have any success in dealing with social programs, economic programs and other community development programs,” he said.

Toews said the water is muddied between gangs and terrorist organizations, which now partner internationally to finance their nefarious activities. “It indicates that we are not simply dealing with local crime. We are dealing with crime that has international ramifications and that terrorist organizations are often working together with gangs in order to raise money,” he said. “That’s not uncommon in other areas of the world if you look at Colombia and places where terrorist organizations deal in drugs to fund their terrorist activities. “The fact that terrorist organizations are making connections with organized crime families would not be unusual given that, that’s how they would have to distribute the drugs that they’re responsible for producing.”

A 2005 report from Criminal Intelligence Service Canada notes that traditional biker, mob and street gangs have evolved with “increasingly complex dynamics.” Using violence and advanced technology, organized criminals are teaming together to bolster their ability to move illicit goods in and out of Canada by air, land and marine ports. “Organized crime in Canada takes advantage of a multitude of opportunities that will bring them profit,” the report concludes. “They are as a result increasingly networked, often engaging in cooperative criminal ventures based upon mutual need.”

NDP MP Joe Comartin said the successful smashing of gangs in Quebec and Manitoba have pushed “residue” to grow in Ontario. He said a “realignment of resources” on security and fighting terrorism after 9/11 has also allowed the problem to fester. “Focusing on the gangs, focusing on the drug trafficking and gun smuggling has relented somewhat because we have concentrated much of our resources on the security and terrorism side,” he said.

Comartin believes guns and gang violence pose a greater threat to public safety than terrorism. The Conservative crackdown will spend millions on prison cells, yet most of those jailed will be low-level “mules” rather than high-level gang leaders.

“The Conservatives rant all the time about the gun registry, well, we’ve got another boondoggle coming here,” he said. “We’re going to spend all that money on prisons to keep people in jail, but what you really need to do is stop the crime in the first place, and the way to do that is to get the money in the hands of provincial and municipal police forces.”

Christa McGregor, a spokesman for Correctional Service of Canada, said inmates affiliated with gangs has climbed to 16 per cent from 12 per cent in 1997. The system is now bracing for that violent, high-risk group to swell even more in coming years with the Conservative crackdown.

Vancouver 24hrs, 21 June 2006

JUDGE NOTES EMERGENCE OF ORGANISED CRIME IN PNG

A JUDGE warned yesterday that organised crime was emerging as a revenue earner for a lot of people in the country. Justice Cathy Davani issued the warning when sentencing Malaysian Joseph Siew Fong Ng to three years in jail for stealing.
The court found that with the help of others, Ng stole K57,660 worth of axes belonging to Brian Bell, and K174,850 worth of tulip tinned meat belonging to Naruwe Agencies in July 2004.
The axes and tinned meat were stolen from the wharf in an organised robbery involving security guards, Harbours Board personnel and truck drivers. The items were removed from the wharf and unloaded at Pari village.

Justice Davani said from the evidence and statements tendered, it was clear that Ng was involved in the organisation and planning of the crime. She said it was clear certain people spent countless hours planning.
“I have seen that this offence bears the hallmark of organised crime. A lot of people were involved and, no doubt, monies may have been exchanged either before or after the crime,” she said in her 15-page sentence.
“Each person had a part to play, from the forklift driver to the security guard, to the truck driver, and those who unloaded the goods and distributed them to various parts of the city.
“Organised crime had gained a foothold in major cities and countries in both Asia and the Western world. And, it is emerging in this country as a revenue earner for a lot of our people. Those who are manipulating the strings are those with cash to spend.
“And, people involved in this crime are those who benefited from the cash and the goods stolen. It is corrupting the bureaucratic machinery and, unfortunately, a lot of it is not prosecuted because of lack of resources or threats and intimidation to witnesses.”
The judge said the court would not be tied down by the fact that Ng had a wife and a daughter, this was his first offence and that he had a business to run, because organised crime was serious.
The judge disregarded several references and letters from various people supporting a suspended sentence for the prisoner. One of the letters was purported to have come from acting Attorney-General Fred Tomo, seeking a suspended sentence for Ng. Mr Tomo had denied writing the letter. The judge said the authenticity of the letter was questionable.
Another letter, purported to have come from Bishop Mark Gaius of St Peters Cathedral, Erima, was described by the judge as fabricated because Erima does not have a Cathedral called St Peters. The only cathedral is the St Mary’s Cathedral in town. The Erima Parish does not have a bishop resident there.
Other letters, which were also rejected, allegedly came from the director-general of the Office of the Prime Minister Joseph Assaigo, dated June 8, 2006, from Pastor Kiap Trakalawa of the Baptist Union of PNG and from Peter Yambi of the NCD Probation Service, dated June 9, 2006

The National, PNG, 21 June 2006.

CALL FOR PAPERS: HUMSEC CONFERENCE

The conference will cover substantive topics on terrorism and organised crime and will consider temporal foci – past, present and future – and look into gender issues in terrorism and organised crime. Titles of proposed papers, plus abstracts of approximately 300 words are invited no later than 4 September 2006.

The HUMSEC project, invites suggestions for presentations at this conference to be held in Ljubljana, 23-25 November 2006. The working language of the conference will be English and all presentations/papers will be in English.
Suggestions received by 4 September 2006 will enjoy priority consideration by a conference-planning group in Brussels in early September. Submissions received in September or October may be considered, depending on the fullness of the conference programme by that time.
For the full conference themes and the submission procedure, read the full post.

CONFERENCE THEMES
Presentations may cover one or more of the following:

Theme 1: Substantive topics on terrorism and organised crime
1.1. Research and analysis on terrorism and/or organised crime, any connections between them, and enforcement actions (disruption, prosecutions, etc), particularly but not exclusively in the region.
1.2. Root causes, precipitating circumstances and factors, prevention policies and actions, all aspects of human (in)security.
1.3. Capacity of society to absorb and recover from damage: institutional, cultural and technical forms of capacity, cooperation and resilience.

Theme 2: Temporal foci – past, present and future
The Conference will provide an opportunity to reflect on experience, as well as discuss the present and gaze into possible futures:
2.1. Past events, case studies of problems, reactions and outcomes: what have we learnt, or could we learn from recent history? (may include examples from other regions, but discussion must be oriented to the western Balkans)
2.2. Current circumstances and events: what seems to be happening right now, what research/analytic methods are being used, how adequate are they and how could these be improved?
2.3. Future risks, if remedial action is not taken: what risks could be most difficult to deal with, or irreversible, and so deserve particular attention? What actions could reduce such risks?

Theme 3: Gender issues in terrorism and organised crime
Gender issues arise in a number of ways, for example in terms of:
3.1. Perpetrators (most serious perpetrators are male, if so why, what informs their participation and modus operandi, what are the exceptions?).
3.2. Victims (specific issues such as (a) trafficking and (b) voluntary smuggling of women).
3.3. Policy/enforcement (do women policy-makers or enforcers have the same or different working styles from men?).
3.4. Research (what are the contributions to knowledge from women in the re-gion?).

SUBMISSION PROCEDURE
Each presentation at the conference will be in English language and will be expected to take 15-20 minutes, before discussion. Please submit your suggestion for a presentation by using the online form.
You may submit one or two proposals. It is unlikely that two presentations would be accepted from the same person or institution, however you may wish to offer alterna-tives. If wishing to submit two proposals, please make two separate submissions. Applicants will be contacted (by email) with a response, and possibly with a suggestion for fine-tuning.

This call is issued on behalf of the project coordinator and the members of the HUMSEC 1 group.
Tilburg University (work package 2 leader)
Univerza v Ljubljani (2006 conference organiser)
Cardiff University (2006 business meeting convenor)
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaft (work package participant)
Universite de Toulouse (work package participant)

INTERNATIONAL SUMMER ACADEMY

International Summer Academie on Human Security. Special Focus on the connections between transnatioal Terrorist and Criminal Organizations in the West Balkan Region. (Application deadline 18 June 2006!)
28 August – 6 September 2006
EUROPEAN TRAINING AND RESEARCH CENTRE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRACY
GRAZ | AUSTRIA

BACKGROUND
The International Summer Academy on Human Security is part of the HUMSEC project and will be held in the Human Rights City of Graz. The project is designed to contribute to a better understanding of the connection between transnational terrorist and criminal organisations in the peace-building process of the Western Balkan region not only on the scientific level: through the organisation of an annual summer academy, the network aims to bring the scientific discourse closer to the civil society, to strengthen democratic principles and to raise awareness by means of human rights education and education for democratic citizenship on the danger that transnational terrorist and criminal organizations
are for the society and for the reconstruction process in the Western Balkan region.

The summer academy will be mainly held by experts nominated by the HUMSEC partner institutions, but also by external experts. The programme is drafted in order to give general information on the topics of transnational terrorism, organized crime and peace-building, on the linkages between these three factors themselves as well as the linkages between these factors and the goals of human security and the respect for human rights. The focus however will be posed on the connections between transnational terrorist and criminal organizations in the Western Balkan region (the leading topic of the first year of the project).

The participants will partly be selected among the HUMSEC partner institutions and partly among those who apply, following the public call for application. Participants will be selected on the basis of their field of interest and their personal motivation to be involved in the programme.

TOPICS
. What is Human Security – Definitions and Analysis
. Defining Terrorism – Manifestations of a political Nightmare
. Crime as a Spider’s Web – the Anatomy and the operating Modes of
Organized Crime
. Exploring the Connections between Terrorism and Organized Crime –
sociological and historical factors
. Cases and Examples for criminal Cooperation: Focal Issue Money
Laundering
. Cases and Examples for criminal Cooperation: Focal Issue Corruption –
When Crime creeps into States
. Cases and Examples for criminal Cooperation: Focal Issue
Trafficking –
The Permeability of Borders
. A View from the Inside – Victims’ Perspectives on Terrorism and
Organized Crime
. Synthetic Approach and Conclusions

METHODOLOGY
The summer academy draws on the expertise of a selected group of academics who represent the project partners from sixteen universities and academic institutions, as well as of the expertise of legal practitioners and decision-makers from various sectors. This guarantees a broad approach to the human security issue and the special focus on terrorist and criminal organisation. The training is based on lectures, discussions and workshops; to assure sustainability and multiplying effects, the training methods put particular emphasis on the interactive approach. The academy is designed as a modular course, covering one topic per day, which allows the transfer of knowledge, the acquisition of skills and the shaping of attitudes as well. Working language of the summer academy is English.

TARGET GROUP
The summer academy is designed as ten-day-course for
. postgraduate students,
. young professionals,
. young researchers
. and representatives of NGOs
whose work agenda focuses on the topics of terrorism, organised crime
and peace-building. Special focus will be made on the selection of
participants from South Eastern and Eastern Europe.

DEADLINE: 18 June, 2006

APPLICATION
For details please consult the Summer Academy’s homepage
www.summeracademy.etc-graz.at or send an email to summeracademy@etc-graz.at
Information on the HUMSEC project is available at www.humsec.eu.

DRUGS AND VIOLENCE COMMON THREAD

WINNIPEG — Street gangsters in Winnipeg come in all shapes and sizes — from Native teens in disadvantaged neighbourhoods to white bikers born and bred in the suburbs. But despite their differences, two things bind them: Drugs and violence.
Manitoba’s gangsters and organized crime members — last estimated at more than 1,500 — are lured to the criminal underworld for reasons including a sense of belonging, protection and status. But it’s the money made from selling gang-controlled drugs that keeps them coming.

It’s impossible to estimate the money sales of cocaine, meth, marijuana and less common drugs put into pockets of Winnipeg gangsters, though police have said the city’s cocaine trade alone is worth more than $5 million a month. A large portion of that trade can be traced to the city’s two biggest outlaw motorcycle clubs: The Hells Angels and the Bandidos.

“I’ve heard them referred to as motorcycle enthusiasts and certainly they are that and more,” Sgt. Rob Harding, a supervisor in the Winnipeg police organized crime unit, told Sun Media last fall. “Probably, the main part of their business is the drug trade.” In February, Winnipeg Police arrested 13 people with alleged ties to the Hells Angels — including Manitoba chapter president Ernie Dew — after an undercover police informant bought more than $400,000 worth of cocaine and meth from the bikers in less than a year.

That headline-grabbing sweep is the kind of bite Mayor Sam Katz wants to take out of organized crime more often, but much of the fight against gangs is coming in smaller measures. After the provincial government provided the city with $4 million in gaming revenue over two years to recruit an additional 48 cops, Katz and Police Chief Jack Ewatski launched Operation Clean Sweep last November to clamp down on street crime. Clean Sweep was initially estimated to cost $1.6 million with 45 officers for three months. Katz has pledged it will run indefinitely.

Besides the biker gangs and their puppet clubs, Winnipeg is home to Asian-based, Native-based and African-based crime groups, as well as European-based groups, including the Mafia. “We’ve got European connections here. We’ve got Italian connections here connected to eastern Canada and eastern states, Chicago. There’s some of everything,” Harding said.

Some of the better-known Winnipeg gangs include Native groups such as the Indian Posse, the Manitoba Warriors and the Native Syndicate. One of the newest gangs in Winnipeg made national headlines last October when a 17-year-old was killed by a stray bullet allegedly fired as a result of in-fighting between the Mad Cowz and splinter group African Mafia.
The Calgary Sun
June 5, 2006

ORGANIZED CRIME: AN INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPEDIA CALL FOR CONTRIBUTORS (REVISED ENTRY DUE DATE)

We are looking for contributors for volume I of the 2-volume, illustrated ORGANIZED CRIME: A INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPEDIA, VOL.I and II, to be published by ABC-CLIO in 2007. Comprehensive in scope and written by top scholars in the field, ORGANIZED CRIME: AN INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPEDIA will be the definitive reference work on Transnational Organized Crime for years to come.

The volume consists of sixteen chapters, broken down into three sections. Section 1 is devoted largely to historical antecedents, causation theories and group dynamics and provides a global overview (by region) of the organized crime problem. Section 2 covers the global organized crime problem by addressing specific activities, enterprises and sources of financing. Section 2 also addresses some key issues such as Hi-tech and Cyber-crimes. Section 3 addresses the global impact of organized crime, the criminal-terrorist nexus and international efforts to combat organized crime and corruption. Section 3 also contains several articles, which address the future of global organized crime and it’s control and concludes by providing an agenda for future research.

Articles run between 3 and 10 manuscript pages in length, depending on the subject. All entries will be signed and all writers will be listed on contributor page. Small honoraria will be paid and/or copies of the full encyclopedia set will also be offered. Contributors may write more than one entry. Full authorial credit, including name and affiliation, will be listed, both with the entry and on the contributor’s page. Given the scope and present relevance of this project it is our desire to attract as many knowledgeable scholars as possible. The submission deadline for the remaining available entries is August 1, 2006. The author may contribute more than one entry provided the above due date is met.

If you or your colleagues are interested in contributing to this exciting and important project, please contact me at your earliest convenience at the following email address: cobra141@prodigy.net

If you cannot contribute, perhaps you can forward names and email addresses of scholars (including graduate students) who might be interested, or forward this email to them.

Sincerely,

Frank Shanty General Editor
ORGANIZED CRIME: AN INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPEDIA
P.O. Box 338
Abingdon, MD. 21009
Email: cobra141@prodigy.net

GANGLAND CANADA

The growing association between street gangs and organized crime — with growing evidence of gang ties to international terrorist organizations — worries police and politicians. In this two-part series, Sun Media explores the prevalence of gangs that plague every major city across the country

Driven by huge profits and a propensity for violence, organized crime groups and street gangs are flourishing across Canada with greater sophistication, stronger networks and deadly influence. From identity theft and hooker rings to hard-core drug operations, human trafficking and gun-smuggling, gangs are exploiting advanced technology and weapons to yield control over cash and turf.

But Justice Minister Vic Toews said traditional lines drawn between various street gangs and organized crime are becoming blurred as distinct groups join hands to maximize the profits and influence of their criminal enterprises. It’s a disturbing trend that makes illicit webs increasingly tough for cops to crack.
“There are real concerns about the growth of violent crime that’s associated with street gangs and organized crime, but also a very clear connection now between more established organized crime families and street gangs,” Toews told Sun Media in an interview. We are committed to addressing this violence, and the first step is seen in our bills that ensure tougher sentencing, especially for gun crime.”

The Conservatives recently tabled a bill that will impose tougher mandatory minimum penalties for gang and gun crimes, but Toews said it’s just one means of tackling the problem. More specially-trained police officers, enhanced intelligence capability and stronger laws to financially cripple organized crime are also required to get the upper hand over innovative gangsters, he said.

“It used to be that many of these gangs stayed in their own expertise or specialty, but that seems to have shifted with these co-ordinated efforts between gangs,” Toews said. “That involves everything from drug trafficking to loan sharking to white collar fraud, especially credit card and bank card frauds, prostitution, trafficking in human beings, grow ops. The pattern is clear that there are connections now emerging between these various gangs.”
Toews said evidence shows that hand gun crime and gang-related homicides are increasing “quite dramatically” across the country, especially in metropolitan centres like Toronto. While addressing community and economic problems is key, he said the New York experience shows it’s best to tackle crime first. “You need to focus on getting the gunmen and the drug dealers off the street if you hope to have any success in dealing with social programs, economic programs and other community development programs,” he said.

Toews said the water is muddied between gangs and terrorist organizations, which now partner internationally to finance their nefarious activities. “It indicates that we are not simply dealing with local crime. We are dealing with crime that has international ramifications and that terrorist organizations are often working together with gangs in order to raise money,” he said. “That’s not uncommon in other areas of the world if you look at Colombia and places where terrorist organizations deal in drugs to fund their terrorist activities. “The fact that terrorist organizations are making connections with organized crime families would not be unusual given that that’s how they would have to distribute the drugs that they’re responsible for producing.”

A 2005 report from Criminal Intelligence Service Canada notes that traditional biker, mob and street gangs have evolved with “increasingly complex dynamics.” Using violence and advanced technology, organized criminals are teaming together to bolster their ability to move illicit goods in and out of Canada by air, land and marine ports. “Organized crime in Canada takes advantage of a multitude of opportunities that will bring them profit,” the report concludes. “They are, as a result, increasingly networked, often engaging in co-operative criminal ventures based upon mutual need.”

NDP MP Joe Comartin said the successful smashing of gangs in Quebec and Manitoba have pushed “residue” to grow in Ontario. He said a “realignment of resources” on security and fighting terrorism after 9/11 has also allowed the problem to fester. “Focusing on the gangs, focusing on the drug trafficking and gun smuggling has relented somewhat because we have concentrated much of our resources on the security and the terrorism side,” he said. Comartin believes guns and gang violence pose a greater threat to public safety than terrorism.

The Conservative crackdown will spend millions on prison cells, yet most of those jailed will be low-level “mules” rather than high-level gang leaders. “The Conservatives rant all the time about the gun registry, well we’ve got another boondoggle coming here,” he said. “We’re going to spend all that money on prisons to keep people in jail, but what you really need to do is stop the crime in the first place, and the way to do that is to get the money in the hands of provincial and municipal police forces.”

Liberal MP Sue Barnes said the Conservative anti-gang strategy is too narrowly focused on punishment to adequately tackle the problem. She said an “umbrella” approach that toughens penalties while addressing underlying root causes is the only way to control gangs in the long term. “Adding jail terms on in itself may sound good for a quote at being tough on crime, but it’s about having a safe community and a safe society, being effective and spending dollars wisely,” she said. “It has to be the balance around the spectrum.”

Christa McGregor, a spokesman for Correctional Service of Canada, said inmates affiliated with gangs has climbed to 16% from 12% in 1997. The system is now bracing for that violent, high-risk group to swell even more in coming years with the Conservative crackdown. CSC is currently developing an enhanced strategy to cope with the burgeoning gang population behind bars, McGregor said.

The Calgary Sun
June 4, 2006

FIFTH ORGANIZED CRIME NETWORK IN 7 MONTHS

Debates over organized crime networks in Turkey that include army, police and mafia members continue.

The organizations accused of several crimes, from blackmail to murders by unknown perpetrators, are preparing to drag the country into chaos, bringing the issue to a new dimension. Police authorities say there are several cell-type crime organizations in addition to the five organizations already demolished.The country is face to face with a new version of the “state-within-state” structure which preoccupied the agenda for awhile after the Susurluk accident.

The bombing that took place in the Semdinli district of Hakkari on 9 November 2005 is considered to be the starting point for the activities uncovered recently. Two non-commissioned officers responsible for the attack against Seferi Yilmaz, a PKK (Kurdish Workers’ Party) activist, are being tried for the crimes of terror and organized crime. The illegal network allegedly held bomb attacks on behalf of the PKK to re-gain power. An operation conducted in the city of Bursa resulted in the unseating of Gendarmerie Commander Colonel Aydin Yesil and the closing of an organization pumping money to the PKK, 29 people were arrested.

The “Sauna Gang” was unveiled in February 2006. Its members collected information about ministers and prepared CDs to blackmail politicians. Former Acting Security Director Ertugrul Cakir and Nuri Bozkir, a Special Forces captain, were arrested for their participation the illegal operation.
A lawyer registered with the Istanbul Bar, Alparslan Arslan, conducted an armed attack against the State Council on 17 May 2006. It was revealed that the people Arslan conspired with were those who bombed Cumhuriyet newspaper. Former army captain Muzaffer Tekin’s name was obtained through phone records. Photos of Tekin with Susurluk convict Ibrahim Sahin and retired Gen. Veli Kucuk appeared in the press.

The Atabeys organized crime network, including some active and retired soldiers, was revealed in Eryaman, Ankara on Wednesday. Several explosives were found in the arsenal-like house. The military suspects caught at a house in Eryaman were interviewed at the Counter-Terrorism Department before being brought to the Central Commandership. The interview was recorded and sent to the Central Commandership. The arrested army members reportedly said, “We kept these munitions at home for training purposes in the event of an emergency scenario,” about the plastic explosives, TNT patterns, weapons, bomb mechanisms and sketches found in the house. Several sketches were found in searches conducted at cell houses of the groups composed of officers serving in the General Staff Special Forces Commandership.

Turkey’s 7th President Kenan Evren said any young military officers advocating a coup should be discharged from office. Evren equated the officers with the janissaries that dethroned Ottoman Sultans in an interview with Aksam newspaper yesterday. The former president said the May 27 1965 coup occurred because of the coercion of the young officers. “I witnessed the coup in the 1960s. The intervening act came from young officers.The young officers organized the forces and the military academy students took over the streets as well as controlling the radio. The janissaries overthrew many Sultans in the Ottoman period. Therefore we should watch out for young officers. Anyone who tempts such a thing should be discharged from the army.”

Evren also mentioned the role of young officers in the coup in the 1980s. “If we had not seized the government, young officers in the army could not have been stopped. I do not think there is a similar situation in Turkey now; however, the chief of the General Staff and top military officials should be very careful. It can be understood from the reactions and letters”, he said.

By Ahmet Donmez, Zaman, Istanbul, Mugla
Published: Friday, June 02, 2006

VACANCY: RESEARCH OFFICER, OXFORD CENTRE FOR THE STUDY OF LAWLESSNESS AND EXTRA-LEGAL PROTECTION

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY, OXFORD CENTRE FOR THE STUDY OF LAWLESSNESS AND EXTRA-LEGAL PROTECTION

ACADEMIC-RELATED RESEARCH STAFF GRADE IA: Salary £20,044 – £30,002 pro rata p.a. (subject to review from 1 August 2006 as part of the implementation of the National Framework Agreement for staff in higher education)

Applications are invited for a part-time (50%) Research Officer, to support the Centre Director and other members in establishing the Centre and achieving its aims. The post will be from 1st September 2006, or as soon as possible thereafter, until 30th August 2008 and is funded by a grant from the John Fell Fund.

The mission of the centre is to promote the study of non-state forms of governance and protection in a comparative and historical perspective. The Centre will launch and participate in international research projects, encourage the collection of systematic evidence on criminal and other forms of extra-legal protection, and forge links with policy makers and NGOs,

The Research Officer would be expected to coordinate the drafting of the constitution of the Centre and the formation of its advisory board; supervise the creation of the Centre’s website and keep it updated; plan the development of library and archival resources; organise events and interact with potential donors and research funding agencies. The successful candidate will have: a demonstrable interest in areas that fall within the Centre¹s interests; a degree in either sociology, political science, economics, law or related disciplines; excellent inter-personal skills and good organisational skills.

Applications should be sent to (by 12 noon on Friday 9th June), and further information can be obtained from:

Miss Natasha Mihailovic’
Administrative Assistant, Department of Sociology,
University of Oxford,
Manor Road, Oxford OX1 3UQ,
jobs@sociology.ox.ac.uk,
www.sociology.ox.ac.uk.

Please quote reference number CY06006.
Interviews will be held on Friday 23rd June.

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